LoRa module can be used in communicating for long-distance. There is also BLE module for short distance.
LoRa RF modulation and LoraWAN protocol are used for WAN communication.
LoRa is the physical layer or the wireless modulation utilized to create a long-range communication link.
LoRaWAN defines the communication protocol and system architecture for the network while the LoRa physical layer enables the long-range
communication link. The protocol and network architecture have the most influence in determining the battery lifetime of a node, the network capacity, the quality of service, the security, and the variety of applications served by the network. LoRaWAN provides Adaptive Data Rate (ADR) method can accommodate changes in the network infrastructure and support varying path loss. To maximize both battery life of end devices and overall network capacity, the LoRa network infrastructure manages the data rate and RF output for each end‐device individually by implementing ADR.
Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE)
Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) is used for NAN communication. Bluetooth LE is providing low power local communication to read modules data and also device firmware can be upgraded by using BLE communication. It is widely applicable to use for service and installation operations.